"architecture is art you can walk through both in space and time."
Architecture arouses sentiments, it is the architect's task is to make those sentiments more precise.
Architecture arouses sentiments. It is the architect's task to transmute those sentiments into reality.

'Need for: Encouraging Women Entrepreneurship in India'

“Beti bacho not just by rules & regulations but by economic empowerment of our women”- Shalaka Lalwani

1.1  Why India’s Women need support?

On studying the decadal sex ration female to male of 1991,2001 & 2011 (Census of India 2011). Shows an alarming drop of female to male sex ration in India.Introduction of technology like ulta sound has further made it easier for sex selection. Male child is preferred over female child.

Supporting Data:

On studying the decadal sex ration female to male of 1991, 2001 & 2011 (Census of India 2011). We can see a rising disparity between the ratio of number of females per 1000 males (in age group of 0-6). In 1991 there were just two states with female sex ratio of 900 & below, one state with female sex ratio of 901 to 925, five states with ratio between 926 to 950, eight states with ratio between 951 to 975 and three states with healthy female ration of 976 & above.

In 2001 there were four states with female sex ratio of 900 & below (as compared to two a decade ago), three state with female sex ratio of 901 to 925 (as compared to one a decade ago), five states with ratio between 926 to 950, nine states with ratio between 951 to 975 and no states with healthy female ration of 976& above.

In 2011 there were six states with female sex ratio of 900 & below (as compared to two in 1991 & three in 2001), two state with female sex ratio of 901 to 925 (as compared to one in 1991 & three in 2001), five states with ratio between 926 to 950, five states with ratio between 951 to 975 ( as compared to eight in 1991 & nine in 2011) and no states with healthy female ration of 976 &above (as compared to three in 1991).      

Abuse of Technology:

Technologies like Ultra sound in India have led to rampant sex selection and increased female infanticide cases in India. In 2002 there were 3,295 units sold, in 2003 there were 3,465 units sold, in 2004 there were 3,640 units sold, in 2005 there were 3,805 units sold. In 2006 there were 4,050 units sold.

1.2 Flawed Thinking: Leading to Female Infanticide

(Factors that determine sex-selective abortions in India)

1.     Preference for male child has led to unchecked male to female ratio.

2.    Girls are considered a burden to the family. They are ‘paraya dhan’ (one that belongs to the other). So investment in her development, education etc. is illogical in the maternal home.

3.     Whereas male child is considered asfuture protector & provider of the family.

4.     Increasing crime against women,rampant gender bias.

5.    Gender specific roles emulated in families. Girls cook, clean & serve. Boys play, get the best resources& lead.

“Cultural transformation seen through lens of money or economics alone can bring about gender equality.”– Shalaka Lalwani

2.1 Male Child Preference

National Family Health Surveys (NFHS)in the last 2 decades shows a strong preference for at 

least one male child, among both men and women. In 2005-06, a third of all women wanted to have more sons than daughters. Over the years, a mere 2-3% of women have wanted to have more daughters than son.

3.1 Women Entrepreneurs in India

Today developing countries have transitioned from artisan fuelled micro economics to entrepreneurship fuelled small and micro enterprises in India. The role of women empowerment to bring out the huge potential of women to the workforce and to the region’s economy is commendable. Role of government and non-government organisations has played a important role to facilitate this revolution. Globalisation, media exposure,education as well as changing socio cultural values and need for supplemented income have brought out our women to come out of their traditional roles of homemakers and caretakers. Women are endowed with natural innate powers of entrepreneurship, forming communities, understanding others needs that they successfully apply to identify, create & cater to new innovative markets.Entrepreneurship is one of the most important factors contributing to the economic development of any society.Study of other developed  countries suggest that proportionately higher percentage of women entrepreneurs in their population have developed much faster as compared to countries, which have lesser percentage of them in the society.

Modern educated Indian women take up entrepreneurial role in order to create their own identity and for self-reliance. They want to pitch in for their family expenses in today inflation driven market. They are in search for a better lifestyle for themselves and their family. It is high time that women entrepreneurship is recognized as powerful enabler in women empowerment as well as economic engine for our nation’s growth.

                   In India, women constitute around 48 percent of the population but their participation in the economic activities is only 34 percent.

                   Asper the Human Development Report (2007), India ranks 96th on the gender related development index of 137 nations.

                   The gender empowerment measures, which estimate the extent of women participation in the country's economic and political activities, rank India as 110th of the 166 nations.


3.2 Women Entrepreneur Definition

Government of India defines ‘Women Entrepreneurs’ as an enterprise owned and controlled by women having a minimum financial interest of 51 per cent of the capital and giving at least 51 per cent of the employment generated in the enterprise to women.

Two factors influence ‘Women Entrepreneurs’ Pull- Push:

1)      Women Entrepreneurs engage in businesses to stand on their own feet & make independent decisions about their chosen occupations. Despite their domestic responsibilities desire to do something new & innovative. This is called the ‘pull factor’ to innovate enterprise.

2)      On the other hand due to circumstances women might be pushed into taking over a family business/enterprise. Or might be thrust to take up financial burden &responsibility. This is called the ‘push factor.’

“In the 21st century power will lie with those who can empower others by creating employment”- Shalaka Lalwani

4.1 Current Entrepreneurship Scenario

      Indian Women in Workforce

                   As per Census only 34% of Indian women are in the work force.

                   96% of them are employed in the unorganized/informal sector.

                   Just 14% are employed in the organised sector.

                   “Thus 96% of women for the lack of Inclusion in the system lack proper documentation& cannot avail financial services or bank loans.”

Latest figures on Indian entrepreneurs, Eight months into 2016 and 670 funding deals worth $2 billion have been closed in India.

                   3%- Solo Female Startups Founders

                   14%- Male & Female Combo Startups

                   83%- Solo Male Startup Founders

                   Gender-biased Indian startup ecosystem — only 21 of 670 funded startups in 2016 run by women

                   Indiaranks a low 70 among 77 countries covered in 2015- Female Entrepreneurship Index


“Women can not only create life but also sustain it by creating employment.”

- Shalaka Lalwani


5.1 Women Entrepreneurs are special:

1.                 They not only represent over 50% of the general demographics but also bring arefreshing view point to the table.

2.                 They have innovative ideas.

3.                 They work harder to garner support & market share.

4.                 May own small scale to medium businesses

5.                 Or may be looking for starting up or expansion/ scaling up of their business


5.2 Challenges faced by Women Entrepreneurs:

1.                 Gender bias

2.                 Lack of support system/ network to fall back on & mentors to look up to.

3.                 They find even initial debt funding, required for day-to-day operations, difficult to raise. Lack of finance capital.

4.                 Tools to assess & access market. Upgrading knowledge bank/ skills.

5.                 Lack of credit history, proper documentation & guarantee.

6.                 Generally applicant’s age, income level, stability of income, assets/ liability &academic background are key criteria's.


6.1 Policies and Schemes for Women Entrepreneurs in India1

In India,the Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises development organisations, various State Small Industries Development Corporations, the Nationalised banks and even NGO share conducting various programmes including Entrepreneurship Development Programmes(EDPs) to cater to the needs of potential women entrepreneurs, who may not have adequate educational background and skills. The Office of DC (MSME) has also opened a Women Cell to provide coordination and assistance to women entrepreneurs facing specific problems. There are also several other schemes of the government at central and state level, which provide assistance for setting up training cum-income generating activities for needy women to make them economically independent.Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) has also been implementing special schemes for women entrepreneurs. In addition to the special schemes for women entrepreneurs, various government schemes for MSMEs also provide certain special incentives and concessions for women entrepreneurs. For instance, under Prime Minister’s Mudra Yogna, Rozgar Yojana (PMRY), preference is given to women beneficiaries. The government has also made several relaxations for women to facilitate the participation of women beneficiaries in this scheme. Similarly, under the MSECluster Development Programme by Ministry of MSME, the contribution from the Ministry of MSME varies between 30-80% of the total project in case of hard intervention,but in the case of clusters owned and managed by women entrepreneurs, contribution of the M/o MSME could be upto 90% of the project cost. Similarly, under the Credit Guarantee Fund Scheme for Micro and Small Enterprises, the guarantee cover is generally available upto 75% of the loans extended; however the extent of guarantee cover is 80% for MSEs operated and/ or owned by women. Some of the special schemes for women entrepreneurs implemented by the government bodies and allied institutions are provided below.

Pradhan Mantri Mudra Loan Yojana PMMY or  MUDRA is a financial initiative by PM Narendra Modi, crated in order to facilitate the micro units and provide them sufficient funds in order to develop. Small businesses are often unable toavail loans from banks because of lack of collateral and insufficient funds to pay off the interest. There are almost 577 crore small businesses currently functioning in India. According to the PM, helping these businesses grow would in turn lead to the development of the Indian economy. Hence, this scheme was launched. MUDRA is still not a fully-fledged bank and is in its initial stages.

At present,the Government of India has over 27 schemes for women operated by different departments and ministries. Some of these are:

                    Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP)

                    Khadi And Village Industries Commission (KVIC)

                    Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment(TRYSEM)

                    Prime Ministers Rojgar Yojana (PMRY)

                    Entrepreneurial Development programme (EDPs)

                    Management Development programmes

                    Women’s Development Corporations (WDCs)

                   Marketingof Non-Farm Products of Rural Women (MAHIMA)

                   Assistanceto Rural Women in Non-Farm Development (ARWIND)


                   TradeRelated Entrepreneurship Assistance and Development (TREAD)

                   Working Women’s Forum

                   Indira Mahila Yojana

                   Indira Mahila Kendra

                   Mahila Samiti Yojana

                   Mahila Vikas Nidhi

                   Micro Credit Scheme

                   Rashtriya Mahila Kosh

                    SIDBIs Mahila Udyam Nidhi

                   MahilaVikas Nidhi

                   SBIsStree Shakti Scheme

                   NGOs Credit Schemes

                   Micro& Small Enterprises Cluster Development Programmes (MSE-CDP).

                   National Banks for Agriculture and Rural Development„s Schemes

                   Rajiv Gandhi Mahila Vikas Pariyojana (RGMVP)

                   Priyadarshini Project- A programme for =Rural Women Empowerment and

                   Liveli hoodin Mid Gangetic Plains„

                   NABARD-KfW-SEWA Bank project

                    Exhibitions for women, under promotional package for Micro & Small

                   Enterprises approved by CCEA under marketing support.

7.1 Conclusion:

Despite concerted efforts of governments and NGOs there are certain gaps. Of course we have come a long way in empowering women yet the future journey is difficult and demanding.

Women occupy nearly 45% of the Indian population. There is a need of taking concrete steps to provide entrepreneurial awareness, orientation and skill development programs to women. The role of Women entrepreneur in economic development is crucial and steps should be taken to promote women entrepreneurship. It becomes clear that there is a need for multi-dimensional approach from different sector, namely from the government side, financial institutions, individual women entrepreneurs, investors and consumers to encourage women run enterprises for growth of our nation.

8.1 References:

1Role of Women Entrepreneurs in India by Vinesh Research Scholar in Commerce, CCS. University Meerut, U.P. Source: http://www.ripublication.com/gjfm-spl/gjfmv6n5_14.pdf




4Census of India 2011


Post By :
Shalaka Lalwani
22 Aug 2016

'Mahindra Technical Academy (MTA)'

MTA(Sustainable Building, Leads Certified Platinum Rated) 40,000 Sq. ft.

TrainingAcademy for Mahindra & Mahindra Staff, Chennai, Tamil Nadu        


Located at Mahindra World City, this sprawling two storey structure set on a site of five acres is a play of volumetric architecture. Designed as a training and research facility for Mahindra trainees & staff. This state of the art architectural project was completed with interiors & landscape in Nov. 2014. MTA’s free flowing design seamlessly merges with Mahindra Research Valley (MRV) campus designed by Sir Charles Correa.

The building consists of two sections of class rooms & PEB workshops segregated by a series of courtyards which both segregate two sections as well as unify it for training purpose. Forming agreen transitional axis.  Courtyards not only serve as light wells but also forms buffer breakout spaces between various zones. The building houses laboratories, workshops, various class rooms with both formal & informal seating’s, computer labs, staff rooms, & conferences. This building with its volumetric play has an interesting curved façade organically camouflaging & merging the PEB workshops into the class room building.

We strongly prefer simplified spaces.Advocating modern Indian Architecture with focus on form & design away from western trend of glass shelled buildings, suitable for our harsh Indian climate. Our buildings are robust structures with play of volumes, connecting spaces, light and shadows. Which can be seen in our various building be its sprawling MSPL- Karnataka for Baldota Group, Green Building –Pune Mahindra& Mahindra or Technical Academy, Chennai for MRF. With many a prestigious buildings Industrial, Corporate & Residential as well as some of the most avant grade interiors executed pan India.

CoBOL A&P is proud to announce, MTA is selected to be featured in th e 2016 Edition of IGBC Coffee Table Book among one of the most remarkable sustainable projects in India.

Post By :
Shalaka Lalwani
19 Aug 2016

'Rural Urban Fringe (RUF)'

This paper discusses various concepts &definitions put forward on the subject of ‘Rural Urban Fringe.’ It further ventures in the Indian context, the leap frog development style of urbanisation in filtering into the borders of rural land which creates a most inefficient land use pattern. The bordering urbanisation may suddenly increase the value of agricultural land & its taxes. Creating havoc for the farmers. Who might find himself in conundrum of whether to sell at a profit or to cultivate at a loss?At the same time the urban resident might enjoy the rural views and raise objection or bring stay to the rural landscape (farmland, hills etc.) being converted to urban, commercial or industrial use.  Forgetting that he himself has brought this urbanization to the initial rural setup. The biggest loss is the loss of fertile agricultural land. As these fringe areas are unplanned &develop organically unlike European or American towns their vast potential remains unexploited in the Indian context.

The rural urban fridge also known as the outskirts or the urban hinterland can be described as the ‘landscape interface’ between town & country. It can also be said as the transition zone where urban & rural uses mix & often clash. It can be viewed as a landscape type in its own right, one forged from an interaction of urban & rural land uses. (3)


Urban Rural Fringe, Fringe, Suburbs, Edge effect,City edge, RUF

Topic: Structure

If we study structure of any medieval town/city in India we see a clear demarcation between the town center & village hinterland demarcated by fort walls or moat. They believed in keeping the urban& village agricultural zones separate for governance purpose. But the advent of postindustrial &World War II towns shows a remarkable medley of these two zones.

Why did this happen? The main reason seems to be the innovation of automobile & transportation links like railways, buses,trams etc. Where by the population became suddenly mobile & capable of travelling long distances. So they now preferred to travel &settle away from the congested city centers to a more reclusive and peaceful country side.

The city usually comes under the governance of its Municipality where as the village comes under gram Panchayats. The smaller municipal towns usually lose their identity under the main town. Though their infrastructure & services is usually at par with the main city. Eg. Navi Mumbai. And in cases where the satellite town or fringe city maintains its identity it notoriously has a lack of good infrastructure, transport &urban amenities. Eg. Vasai Virar.

Any thriving city or urban node attracts migrants & work force. In addition to its own growing population these influx, forces it to expand its limits. The younger as well as richer population among these new arrivals settles into planned suburbs or residential zones.(due to availability of motorized vehicles of their own/ city transport they do not mind settling further off). While the poor & unskilled among these immigrants settle in small high density areas near the city centers/employment (slums). They stay in close proximity to the original residents to seek occupation. These gives rise to suburbs or satellite towns. As the city grows further it soon encroaches into its surrounding un urbanized, villages or forest cover. These are the areas where these fringes acquire their own unique flavor or areas of concern.  

Here we can site examples of areas like Ahmedabad,New Delhi, Chandigarh, Mumbai etc. To study a typical Indian context case of city of Ahmedabad can be quoted where one can clearly see that its fringes have bungalow plots, luxurious residents of the nouveau rich who live a modern urban lifestyle & have bought all facilities of an ideal city life up to the embark met of villages. Apart from these they still enjoy the green fields around them & fresh vegetables delivered to their door steps. Whereas in the heart of these same villages, tradition mud houses, caste based professions& traditional life styles are still practiced to date. 

Issues faced by Ahmedabad urban fringe are very unique. 1980s saw a sudden rise in the population of this urban fringe area. A lot of burglaries have risen in the suburban. Also services like fire, sanitation& transport are poor compared to the city because this fringe area lies outside the municipality & Ahmedabad Town Planning Department. Lack of garbage disposal, electricity &sewage drainage plague this area. People in the fringe area depend on the CBD area for amenities & services like hospitals etc. Loss of agricultural land to suburbs has raised the cost of vegetables due to shortage of supply &increase in cost of transportation long distance to carry it to the city center.

Where as in the case of Mumbai anew kind of techno commercial, Industrial fringe is visible. If we see its suburbs mainly residential land use is seen. Due to its grievous affordable housing problem for its large growing population. Real estate is extremely valuable here. So suburbs of Andheri, Goregaon, Borivilie etc. have vast stretches of residential and commercial properties. Its satellite cities of Navi Mumbai, Thane, Palghar, and Vasai Virar also duplicate this trend. Buthere an additional element of Industrial belt is seen, may be due to availability of vast stretches of land& uncomplicated taxes/regulations.Thus we can conclude that each fridge predominantly caters to the inherent character & economic as well as social need of its parent urban node(city). And is exploited to cater to its immediate & immerging needs.


With the benefits, come various negative impacts caused by developing the RUF. The below table lists down the Issues in the rural-urban fringe:

Land Use

Positive Aspects

Negative Aspects


Many well-managed farms and small-holdings

Farms often suffer litter, trespass and vandalism; some land is derelict in the hope of planning permission


Some well-sited, carefully landscaped developments such as business and science parks

Some developments, such as out-of-town shopping areas cause heavy traffic flows and pollution. Unregulated businesses such as scrap metal and caravan storage. Airport expansion

Urban services

Some, such as reservoirs or cemeteries, may be attractive

Mineral workings, sewage works, landfill sites etc, can be unattractive and polluting


New cycle ways and footpaths can improve access to the countryside

Motorways destroy countryside and promote new development, particularly near junctions

Recreation and sport

Country parks, sports fields and golf courses can lead to conservation

Some activities such as stock car racing and scrambling erode ecosystems and create localised litter and pollution

Landscape and nature conservation

Many SSSI (sites of special scientific interest) and AONB (areas of natural beauty)

Much degraded land e.g. land ruined by fly-tipping; many SSSIs under threat.


DominantUrban Fringe eg.Navi Mumbai



The expanded urban fringe attracts a lot of real estate development, residential, bungalow plots, corporate buildings etc.

It also attracts profit hording businesses like industries, junk yards, cold  storage, brick kilns. This can be ugly or nasty in nature.

Infrastructure, transport, buses, railways, freeways emerge resulting in better connectivity.

This area sometimes gets ignored & lost due to unplanned roads, by lanes, open drainage resembles a large slum or ghettos for industrial workers.

Strong linkage with the city & its services.

Exploitation of agricultural fields by change of land use or encroachment for building services or industrial purposes.

DominantRural Fringe eg.Vasai Virar



Focus on need based cash crops suddenly appears. Like vegetables & fruits for the city dwellers.

As maximum villagers try to find urban employments there are less people in agricultural pursuits. Remaining population shifts to produce & selling fruits & vegetables.

Urban services like hospitals, schools & colleges come within reach. 

More aspirations arise to copy city dwellers. Needs increase.

Life styles juxtaposition between modern urban & traditional village. Stark contrast can arise. May lead to conflict.

Exploitation of agricultural fields by change of land use or encroachment for building services or industrial purposes.

Price of agricultural land suddenly rise so do taxes.

Farmer in dilemma to sell land or farm at a loss.

Dependence on villagers for cheap labor for various city services. 

These fringe/ towns maintain their distinctive identity & have their distinct set of problems. Urban amenities, services, transport quality inferior than the main city. Haphazard development.


We arrive at a conclusion that the inner zone ofR-U fringe is in the advanced stage of transition from rural to urban uses. The outer zone usually shows that gradual changes are in the process and city influences have begun to appear. Beyond the outer zone is a diffused area where dispersal of some non-farm residences appears.

At the city margins everywhere, the fringes contain a wide mix of land uses ranging from a variety of commercial developments to the city services and industries. Some of the cities of the Western world have their fringes turned into ‘unpleasant environment’ by noxious industrial units,junkyards, whole sale oil storage, sewage plants, and even cemeteries.Out-of-town shopping centers also form a part of the western cities’ fringes.

In India, urban fringe have become almost jumbled by coalescing of settlements inheriting all the evils of urbanization such as slums, drainage less unpaved narrow lanes and traffic congestion not far off the city center.

Fringes have usurped the land which was formerly under the agricultural production –‘baris’ and orchards. In brief, R-U fringe areas in India offer the greatest challenges to the urban planner. As it is bound to take place special policies & following planning needs should be considered beforehand.

Special planning needs of fringe area:

As we can see in American towns great deal of planning goes to use vast tracks of land outside the city limits (fringe areas). In India unplanned development of the city & its fringe, have led to disturbance of the rural-urban relationship. Further widening the social& economic gap between the two.

There should be emphasis on integrating the city& fringe services like drainage, water supply, transport, road network etc.Along with this special care should be taken for maintaining ecological equilibrium of the rural fringe.

As the city & village come under two different development authority(municipal & gram panchayat) it is not possible for town planning authority to give due importance to fringe development. Special provision or understanding between these two authorities a must to develop this jurisdiction. Thus any development in the fringe is understandably slow.

References/ Sources Explored:

(1) Urban fridge belts:Development of an idea byJ.W. Writehand / Published 08 May2007                

(2) Book: Rural-urban fringe, by CS Yadav –1987                                                                                   

(3) By Griffiths, Michael B. (2010) Journal of Current Chinese Affairs.39, 2, 3-37.https.//en.wikipedia.org                                                                                                                          

(4)American term coined by Joel Garreau (1991), book ‘Edge City: Life on the New Frontier’.                                      

(5 &6) http://en.wikipedia.org                                                                                                                              

(7) Rural-Urban Fringe: Concept, Meaningand Characteristics and Other Details by S Sharma, http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/geography/rural-urban-fringe-concept-meaning-and-characteristics-and-other-details/40076/                                                                                                                

(8)Various papers on Google Scholar

(9) Between the country & Concrete:Rediscovering the Rural Urban Fringe                                                    

(10) http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/geography/rural-urban-fringe-meaning-and-its-structure/42539/

Post By :
Shalaka Lalwani
26 Nov 2015

'Evolution of Housing Policies & Land Reforms in India'


EWS- Economically Weak Section, LIG- LowerIncome Group, MIG- Middle Income Group, HIG- High Income Group

India’Evolution of Housing Policies & Land Reforms in India

India's ever growing population is responsible for sever housing shortage at the national, state, rural &urban sectors. The census 2011 clearly indicates that since 2001 our urban population has risen steadily by 2.8% (CAGR- Compound annual growth rate). In 2011 our population was 1,210.98 million out of which 377.10 million (31.16%)lived in urban area. As per the census India had about 78.48 million Urban house holds were needed. From this data it might seem the gap between necessity and availability is narrowing but MHUPA says the truth is way different. The actual shortage is severely high as the bulk of population in Urban areas live in substandard, congested dwellings, in slums & squatter settlements,

Due to the astronomical pricing of land & real estate housing in Urban area the poor& economical weaker sections are forced to live in unsanitary, dilapidated,unhygienic conditions in slums. As per estimate of ‘Ministry of Housing &Urban Poverty Alleviation’ (MHUPA) at the end of our 10th Five Year Plan the housing shortage was 24.71 million for 66.30 million households.During the 11th Five Year Plan in 2012 the requirement was for 26.53 million dwellings for 75.01 million households. By 2020 the need will escalate to a minimum 30 million additional households.


Private developers usually cater to &target MIG & HIG income groups while the government exclusively takes care of the housing for EWS & LIG sectors purely based on various welfare schemes until now. There is a acute shortage in the market for ‘affordable housing’.

Affordable Housing - MHUPA 2011


EMI or Rent


minimum of 300 sq ft super built-up area

minimum of 269 sq ft (25 sq m) carpet area

not exceeding

30–40% of

gross monthly

income of buyer


minimum of 500 sq ft super built-up area

maximum of 517 sq ft (48 sqm) carpet area


600–1,200 sq ft super built-up area

maximum of 861 sq ft (80 sqm) carpet area


Affordable Housing

Paucity of urban land, astronomical pricing has made all construction go vertical. Provision of basic amenities clean drinking water, sanitation and power supply to an individual housing unit is crucial. Along with community spaces, transportation, parks, schools,healthcare and self-contained neighbour hoods are a must for success of any affordable housing. Above all the cost of the house should be calculated as per the affordability of the buyer but also by its overall maintenance cost. And near the place of their viable employment/ occupation (within 20k m). As transport costs also adds to overheads. For success of LIG & EWS transition from slums and squatter settlements to affordable housing units all these factors along with low operational and maintenance cost of units should be considered.

Another factor for LIG & EWS groups is their lack of access to housing finance. National Housing Bank (Reserve Bank of India) promotes housing finance activities via HFCs (Housing finance Companies), Apex housing Cooperative societies etc. for this sections.


Housing Finance for LIG & EWS India (Schematic as per Word Bank)


Financial Institutions

Development Financial Institutions









Non Banking Financial Companies

HFCs, Other NBFC’s


Scheduled Commercial Banks

Private Banks

Public Banks

Cooperative Banks

Urban, District & State Cooperative Banks

Other Institutions

Agricultural & Rural Development Networks

Primary Land Development Banks

Apex cooperative Housing Societies

Housing Societies


People from these groups around 65% – 70% are employed in unorganised sectors in urban areas as per Ministry of Labour and Employment. And avail loan from 3 to 10 lakhs for their housing needs. As they are paid in cash and have no documentation proof,ids etc. this sector remains the least served sector by housing finance as they are seen as high risk sector.  


Building Bylaws

Another hurdle for‘affordable housing’ in India is its severe regulatory constraints on real estate developments, its lack of clarity in terms of urban planning, lengthy approval procedures in city planning, utilities services, development approvals& land use conversion process. Which results in delays as well as cost escalation in projects which is borne by the buyer. Overlapping laws &guidelines concerning FSI, Urban Local bodies (ULBs) & Urban Development Department (UDDs) in India need to be sorted out effectively.


Overhaul of archaic laws

Laws like rent control act of Mumbai which have brought decay to the development scenario need to be overhauled. As the restrict and hamper redevelopment. As these old properties pose not only threat to lives but also lead to more congestion and shortage of properties.


Central Level Schemes

Several policies adopted by Central Government have assisted in the delivery of affordable housing for the EWS, LIG and lower MIG.

National Housing Policy was formulated in 1988.

National Housing Policy in 1994

National Housing and Habitat Policy (NHHP) in 1998

74th Constitution Amendment of 1992.


These policy initiatives focused on transition of public sector role as `facilitator’, increased role of the private sector,decentralization, development of fiscal incentives and concessions, accelerated flow of housing finance and promotion of  environment-friendly, cost-effective and pro-poor technology. The NHHP introduced landmark initiatives such as involvement of multiple stakeholders,repeal of Urban Land Ceiling Act and permitting foreign direct investment in housing and real estate sector. However, all these policies were generic and applicable to both rural and urban areas.


The National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy was announced in December 2007,(NUHHP).

NUHHP 2007 has identified ‘Affordable Housing for All’ as a key focus area to address concerns that could potentially impede sustainable urban development. The policy seeks to promote various types of partnerships between public, private, cooperative and the institutional sectors in order to attain accessibility to serviced land and adequate housing stock with focus on economically weaker sections and low-income group categories.

And to use technology to modernise the housing sector and enhance energy and cost efficiency, productivity and quality.


Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM)2005

JNNURM was launched in December 2005 with an aim to encourage and expedite urban reforms in India. For the housing sector in particular, its main aim was construction of 1.5 million houses for the urban poor during the mission period (2005–2012) in 65 mission cities.


Basic Services for the Urban Poor (BSUP) – The scheme is managed by the Ministry of Urban Development. It seeks to provide seven entitlements or services –security of tenure,

affordable housing, water, sanitation, health, education and social security to low-income segments in the 65 mission cities


Integrated Housing and Slum Development Programme (IHSDP) –Integrated Housing and Slum Development Programme aims to combine the existingschemes of Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana(VAMBAY) and National Slum Development Programme (NSDP) for having an integrated approach in ameliorating the conditions of the urban slum dwellers who do not possess adequate shelter and reside in dilapidated conditions. The scheme is applicable to all cities and towns as per 2001 census except cities/towns covered under BSUP.

-The sharing of funds would be in the ratio of 80:20 between Central Government and State Government/ULB/Beneficiaries.

- A minimum of 12% beneficiary contribution is stipulated, which in the case of SC/ST/BC/OBC/PH and other weaker sections is 10%.

Affordable Housing in Partnership (AHIP) – The scheme of Affordable Housing in Partnership aims to promote various types of public-private partnerships amongst the private sector, cooperative sector,financial services sector, state parastatals and urban local bodies, for realizing the goal of affordable housing for all. This scheme is a part of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) and takes into account the experience of implementing Basic Services to the Urban Poor (BSUP) and Integrated Housing and Slum Development Programme(IHSDP).

- modification in the guidelines of JNNURM (BSUP) to facilitate and incentivize land assembly for affordable housing.

- disbursement of funds linked to the actual provision of amenities. A normative cap per EWS/LIG dwelling unit is fixed in consultation with the states for the purpose.

Interest Subsidy Scheme for Housing the Urban Poor (ISHUP)

• modification in the guidelines of JNNURM (BSUP) to facilitate and incentivize land assembly for affordable housing.

A normative cap per EWS/LIG dwelling unit is fixed in consultation with the states for the purpose.


Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) – The scheme for the slum dwellers and the urban poor envisages a ‘Slum-free India’ by encouraging states and union territories to tackle the problem of slums in a definitive manner.

RAY will provide the support to enable states to redevelop all existing slums in a holistic and integrated way and create new affordable housing stock. The existing schemes of Affordable Housing in Partnership and Interest Subsidy for Housing the Urban Poor (ISHUP)

would be dovetailed into this scheme. No new projects under the BSUP and IHSDP scheme of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) will be sanctioned once implementation of RAY scheme is taken up except to consume existing 11th Five-

Year Plan allocations that may be left uncommitted.

The scope of RAY envisaged is as follows

• integrated development of all existing slums, notified or non notified, i.e. development of infrastructure and housing in the slums or rehabilitation colonies for the slum dwellers or urban poor, including rental housing.

• development, improvement and maintenance of basic services to the urban poor, including water supply, sewerage, drainage, solid waste management, approach and internal roads, street lighting, community facilities such as community toilets and baths, informal sector markets and livelihoods centres.

• other community facilities like preschools, child care centres, schools, health centres to be undertaken in convergence with programmes of respective ministries.

convergence with health, education and social security schemes for the urban poor and connectivity infrastructure for duly connecting slums with city-wide infrastructure facilities and projects.

•creation of affordable housing stock, including rental housing with the provision of civic infrastructure and services, on ownership, rental or rental-purchase basis.



External Commercial Borrowing (ECB) for Affordable Housing

Under the Union Budget 2012–13, External Commercial Borrowing (ECB) has been allowed for affordable and low-cost housing. This has been done to ensure a lower cost ofborrowing for the segment.

Under the norms, ECB may have to be routed through the National Housing Bank (NHB), which could act as a centralised mechanism to help small developers avail the facility. The government would also allow developers to raise such debt only for projects where a significant portion of units (75–90%) are reserved for the LIG and EWS. State Sponsored Initiatives.


State Sponsored Initiatives :Maharashtra

The Maharashtra State Housing Policy (2007)promotes LIG and EWS housing along with rental housing as a key objective.

• The state has also constituted a Slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA) to focus on rehabilitation as well as redevelopment of slums. This scheme is being implemented in the cities of Mumbai, Pune and Nagpur.

•Additionally, the National Slum Dwellers’ Federation (NSDF) works actively with Mumbai authorities to develop and implement resettlement plans and ensure that the most vulnerable sections of society are not marginalised. The NSDF is looking at mapping each member of a household electronically and issue individual identity cards to ensure transparency in rehabilitation efforts.

• For projects under JNNURM’s Basic Services to Urban Poor (BSUP) and Integrated Housing and Slum Development Program (IHSDP), the Maharashtra government is willing to provide FSI of up to 2.5, the prerequisite being that projects have to be implemented by the municipal corporation or council.

• The government has also passed a resolution for all Class A municipal councils to set aside some part of the area for developments undertaken for EWS/LIG and MIG Housing.

The Mumbai Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (MMRDA) has also come up with FSI rates going up to four in order to promote rental housing developments in the city.

• MMRDA is initiating developers like Matheran Housing and Tata Housing for PPP-led affordable housing development.

•Additionally, the City Industrial and Development Authority (CIDCO) has developed a mass housing scheme in Kharghar known as ‘Gharonda Housing’ and launched the ‘Unnati GruhanirmanYojna’ in Ulwe, Maharashtra. Both these schemes have received interest from thetarget end user catchments


The Landscape of Affordable Housing Development  (unit prices <INR 10 Lakhs in major Indian Cities)


“Looking ahead, affordable housing for all, By 2022.”



Old Chawls :Source: Heritage Committee, www.heritagekids.org ,BDD Chawal at Naigao &Grant Road (Typical Layout)

BDD Chawls Unit Area (Legal Owners)

After Redevelopment, MHADA

160 Sq.ft. (14.9 sq.mt.)

540 sq. ft. (50 sq.mt.)


Slums of Mumbai, SRA Scheme Malad

SRA Unit Area

(Notified or Census Slum)

After Redevelopment, Under SRA

Per Tenement

269 sq. ft. (25 sq. mt.)


SRA Project Feasibility Calculation


Note: Calculation excluding fungible component as it is allowable over & above basic FSI.


a)   SRA projects:

Mumbai City Example(assuming 1000 sq.mt. plot, each unit 25 sq. mt., 60 slums)


Assume plot size                 1000 sq. mt.

Assume tenements’             60 no.s

Tenement size                     25 sq. mts.

Rehabilitation component   60 x 25 = 1500 sq. mt.

Salable Component(.75:1)   75% x 1500 sq. mt = 1125 sq. mt. (Builder)

Total area                             1500 + 1125 =2625 sq. mt.

Maximum allowable FSI 2.5

Allowable construction area(Plot x FSI= 1000 x 2.5= 2500 sq. mt) as per FSI


Slum component = 1500 sq. mt

Salable Component = 1000 sq.mt.

Total construction of site =1500 + 1000= 2500 sq. mt.

Slum TDR= 2625 – 2500= 125 sq. mt. (Builder Sells TDR to open market)  


(*General permissible construction FSI is 1.33 Mumbai City

Suburbs permissible construction FSI is 1(FSI)+1 (TDR)=2 for Suburbs)

In the island city of Mumbai, property prices are high and so smaller incentive FSI is given.

b)   SRA projects:

Suburbs Example (assuming 1000 sq.mt. plot, each unit 25 sq. mt., 60 slums)


Assume plot size                 1000 sq. mt.

Assume tenements’             60 no.s

Tenement size                     25 sq. mts.

Rehabilitation component    60 x 25= 1500 sq. mt.

Salable Component (1:1)    100% x 1500 sq. mt = 1500 sq. mt. (Builder)

Total area                            1500 + 1500 = 3000sq. mt.

Maximum allowable FSI 2.5

Allowable construction area(Plot x FSI= 1000 x 2.5= 2500 sq. mt) as per FSI


Slum component = 1500 sq. mt

Salable Component = 1000 sq.mt.

Total construction of site =1500 + 1000= 2500 sq. mt.

Slum TDR= 3000 – 2500= 500sq. mt. (Builder Sells TDR to open market) 


c)   SRA projects: (Special case due to high density)

Dharavi Example (assuming 1000 sq.mt. plot, each unit 25 sq. mt., 60 slums)


Assume plot size                1000 sq. mt.

Assume tenements’            60 no.s

Tenement size                    25 sq. mts.

Rehabilitation component   60 x 25 = 1500 sq. mt.

Salable Component (1.33:1) 133%x 1500 sq. mt = 1995 sq. mt. (Builder)

Total area                           1500 + 1995 = 3495 sq. mt.

Maximum allowable FSI 2.5

Allowable construction area(Plot x FSI= 1000 x 2.5= 2500 sq. mt) as per FSI


Slum component = 1500 sq. mt

Salable Component = 1000 sq.mt.

Total construction of site =1500 + 1000= 2500 sq. mt.

Slum TDR= 3495 – 2500= 99 5sq. mt. (Builder Sells TDR to open market) 

Land Reforms In India

Only after Independence serious efforts were taken for‘Land Reforms’. First step was removing of intermediaries like Zamindars,Talukdars, Zagirs, Inams dominating the agricultural sector land. The first actwas passed in 1948 in Madrass, then in 1951 Orissa estates abolition act waspassed. By 1955 the progress for abolition of intermediaries had been completedby all states.


Rural India witnessed three types of ‘Tenants’:

1) Permanent or Occupancy tenants

2) temporary or non-occupancy tenants

3) Sub tenants. The tenants cultivated land, allagreements were oral. Tenancy reforms in all states & these three commonaspects.

1) Security of tenure for the tenants

2) fixation of fair rent

3) grant of ownership rights to certain type oftenants.


In some areas the rent was ashigh upto 70% plus the tenant had toprovide servitude or services to the feudal lord. Who controlled his life. Soat the beginning of the first plan, the central Government insisted on theregulation of high rent by the State Government. It was laid down that the rentto be paid to the landlord should not be more than 20 to 25 per cent.  Accordingly different state governmentspassed tenancy legislations to regulate rent.

As a result of thesemeasures about 40 lakh tenants have already acquired ownership rights over 37lakh hectares of land. In several states, inn the matter of tenancy reforms,legislation falls short of the accepted policy. Due to half-heartedimplementation. The legal protection granted to tenants has been ineffective.


A very important step for land reforms has been theimposition of ceiling on land holdings. The two main aspects of ‘Land Ceiling’are: 1) Fixing of land ceiling limit (how much can an individual own) & 2)Acquisition of the surplus land. The social reason for ‘Land ceiling’ is in apoor country like India it is socially unjust for a small group of people tohold large parcels of land while the majority of people have nothing. It isvery unjust and unequal division. So the land ceiling act was introduced.  Under the new land ceiling at an individualcan hold 10 to 18 acres with good water supply & if the site removes twocrops, depending on the productivity of land. Areas with provision forirrigation only for one crop the ceiling is fixed for 27 acres.

Bhoodhan Movement was sphere headed by Acharya VinobhaBhave where he took land donations from the rich zamindars and landlords andpassed it down to poor farmers. About 4.2 million land was received in theBhoodan movement. Of which only 1.3 million has been distributed.


Failure causes of ‘Land Reforms’:

1) Undue advance publicity and delay in enacting land laws. Which gives adequate time for land owners to do the necessary adjustment to evade land ceiling etc.

2) Loose definition of the term ‘personal cultivation’even sitting 200 miles away. Such terminologies have been exploited by the Zamindars.

3) Most ownership laws granting ownership to the tenants are not mandatory. The tenant has to move the government. In most cases he is scared by the power or authority of the zamindar/ owner.

4) To escape law Zamindar/ owner tranfers property on various relative or kinship names resulting in, Malified transfer of land.

5) Lack of awareness of their rights & under standing of the law between tenants.

6) Usually the state governments sides with the large farmers ignoring the small farmers completely.

7) Bureaucratic corruption.

8) Land reform provide a golden opportunity to thePatwari & other functionaries of the revenues department to make money.Again in many cases the highly placed officials are landlords.

9) A standard trick played by manipulating the land data,the surplus land as fallow (barren/ uncultivable) so that it cannot beconfiscated.

10) Absence of documentation regarding ownership &possession of land deeds, making identification of beneficiary difficult.

11) Excess land taken from large farmer should bedispensed off to assist the land reform beneficiary. This can be linked toJawahar Rozgar Yojna, Prime Ministers Rozgar Yojna.

12) The poor peasants should be provided legal aid uptoSupreme Court. The Lok Adalats should be empowered to dispose of land reformlitigations along with prompt disposal of cases by rural courts. 

In order to remove these hindrances the poor should be motivated through education and persuasion. It requires strong political will &bureaucracy to achieve the desired results. 

Post By :
Shalaka Lalwani
26 Nov 2015

'“Rob Krier”'

Background: Rob Krieris considered one of the most influential voices to talk about ‘moderncities’& ‘Urbanism’ in postmodern/ recent times. He was born in 1938Grevenmachen & brought up in a small town bordering German Belgium bordercalled Luxembourg. In his early childhood his father took his family frequentlyon exertions all round France & Italy. The young Rob especially fell inlove with the beautiful & grand cathedrals & platz’s of Italy. At thetender age of 12 years he had made up his mind to train as an Architect. Hisdream was to study Architecture in Paris. But after the war, Paris was a uglyplace, with dirt, broken ill maintained classical buildings of the old. Hecouldn’t bear to look at the destroyed classical statues and garish paintedfacades. He ran away from Paris & resumed his architecture education atTechnical University of Munich from1959 to 1964, in more normal surroundings. He had a urgency to finishhis studies and start practice as he believed his profession could truly be understoodby application. His younger brother Leon Krier also followed in his footstepsto become an influential architect.

Asa young lad after the war he had witnessed beautiful towns in his native landGermany razed to ground. It elicited strong emotional reaction from him andbecame the base of many of his modern views on design & Urbanismphilosophies. Well documented in one of his books, ‘Elements of Architecture’(1983) a beautifully illustrated book.

RobKrier considered architects to be artists as well, as they manifested theirdesign and form fantasies into reality. He himself was a multitalented genius arenowned sculptor, architect, urban designer, professor, author & theorist.His extensive work is also supplemented by his contribution of around 38 books.  

Theory: Rob Krierfamous motto & advice for students is, ‘Learn from your tradition’. Theclassical architecture style which has survived hundreds of years will live on.Due to its superior quality of aesthetics, building materials, stone work,quality of doors, windows, masonry etc. He says such designs are impossible tobe executed today. Our modern style according to him has no character oruniqueness to it. It is just repetitive and not thoughtful unlike the classicaltradition which has elegance, quality and empowers anyone using it withself-importance and status.  

Krierin his book ‘Elements in Architecture ‘states the relevance of differentelements and details in Architecture. He further expounds on typology of spacesand the importance of proportions, based on past teachings. He believes moderntrends are bound to fail in future due to lack of consistency and lack ofwell-defined design principles.

RobKrier along with his brother Leon have witnessed the utter ruin of their hometown Luxembourg due to poor planning and building leading them to study indepth merits of historical and modern urban development. Krier an staunchadvocate of traditional architecture and urbanism has shared this view in hismany books, drawings, writings and lectures. A lifetime of his study of Urbanplaces and elements of Architecture. He is a voice for European thought as hewas greatly influenced by the cities and structures that were destroyed by WordWar II from the renascence period & older. His major work comprised designing& replacing these devastated cities & structures in his prime.

Work/ Ideology: Krier hasproduced impressive amount of work in his practice. His work has been comparedby critiques to a vibrant ‘Capriccio’ a passionate, vibrant, colourfulcomposition of masterful music. His works can be divided into four distinctivecategories his 1) Buildings &Urban Designs,2)Academia: his various engagements as professorat reputed universities,3) his hugeamount of sketches, drawing & books and 4)lastly his sculptors(which graced most of his town planningprojects & structures).

Asa young Architect Krier admired works of Le Corbusier but after the word war IIhe had drastically changed his opinions. Krier idolised & was greatlyinfluenced by works as well as theories of 19th century brilliantarchitect & town planner, Stubben. Stubben’s references can be found allover his work. Herman Josef Stubben was a German architect practicing in Berlinand wrote ‘Der Stadtebau’ which Krier called the greatest book written in 19thcentury. He also greatly admired Austrian Architect Camillo Sitte & hisbook ‘City Planning According to Artistic Principles.’Krier’s ideology firmlyrevolved around geometry & scale which he considered to be the foundationof good architectural design.

1)Works: Krier worked in Cologne & Berlin with Oswald MathiasUngers after his graduation (1965-66) & Stuttgart (1967-70) before startinghis own practice. He practised in Vienna from 1976 to 1994. Then with NicolasLebunetel he ran a joint office in Montpellier, France. He also ran a jointoffice with Christoph Kohl in 1993, Berlin under the name ‘Krier – KohlGesellschaft Von Architekten mbH’. It was renamed to ‘KK Gesellschaft vonArchitekten mbH’ backed by Krier as senior advisor since June 2010.

Krier’sselect projects from 1966 to 1993 are systematically catalogued in hiswell-known book ‘Architecture & Urban Design’. His works both buildings& town plans from all over Europe, Austria, Belgium, England, France,Germany, Haley, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Spain & Sweden can be referredhere.

Some of hisbuildings: Siemer House- Stuttgart (1968), Pickes House- Luxembourg(1974), Kolbensson House- Luxembourg (1975), Weideman House- Stuttgart (1995), New Community Centre- Vienna(1977), Reconstruction of Ephraim Palace- Berlin (1979),Apartment building inRitterstrasse- Berlin (1977-80), Schinsel Platz- Berlin (1977-87), Prageplatz- Berlin (1978),House I- Spandau, Berlin (1978-81), House II-Spandau, Berlin (1978-81),Housing on the Tiergarten- Rauchtresse, Berlin(1980), Via Triumphalis- Karlsrche (1979),Housing in Babelsheqerstrasse-Wilmersdorf (1981), State Library- Karlsrche (1979),Housing in Babelsheqerstrasse-Wilmersdorf (1981),Place De L’etoile – Luxemborg (1982), Housing inBreitmfurterstrasse, Vienna (1981-87), Academy of Fine Arts- Berlin (1983),Krier Flat- Vienna (1980-84), Housing in Schrankenberggasse, Vienna (1983-86),Housing in Hirschstetten, Vienna (1983),Cultural Centre in Breitenfurt- Vienna(1985), Belveder- Freibur (1985-86), Office building- Vienna (1986), MonchsteinHotel Extension- Salzburg (1986-87), Remodelling of the Piazzale- MattelttiVicenza (1986),Seville World Expo 92- Spain (1986), Urban Block, Bilbao(1988-89), Flosser Monument- Pfozzheim (1988-91), Town Hall- Mannhem (1986),Resort Town Sistiana – Trieste (1987), Parish Hall Pordenone- Vneto (1986-88),OldPeoples Housing- Dusseldorf (1988-93),New Parliament Building - Luxembourg(1990-91), New Community in Potsdam Eiche- Berlin (1991),Cultural Centre inEchternach- Luxembourge (1992).

Someof his urban designs: Master plan of Aalter- Beign (1966),Leinfelden-Stuttgart(1971),Royal Mint Square-London (1974),Reconstruction of The InnerCity-Stuttgart (1973), Proposal for the Ballhaus Platz- Vienna (1976),Housingof the Renneveg- Vienna (1977), Urban Proposal for Altona Nord- Hamburg(1978-81), Proposal for West Berlin City Centre (1976-77), Urban Development ofSouth Friedrichstadt- Berlin (1977), Reconstruction of the city centre Amins(1984-91), Urban Proposal for the Forellengereg- Salzburg (1983-84), Urban Planfor Liesing, Vienna (1985), Housing close to the Reichsbrucke, Vienna (1985),UrbanIntervention in Jrun – Spain (1988-91), Kirgate Markets- Leeds (1989), UrbanPlan for ‘Lavi Kavel’- Netherlands (1988-93),Master plan for Port Marianne-Consuls De Mer- Montpellier (1990-93), Proposal for the Exerzier Platz,Pirmasens (1990), Master Plan for the Venta Berri- San Sebastian (1989-90),Urban Plan for Goteborg - Sweden (1989-90), Bussy St. Georges - Paris (1989),Urban Proposal for Cergy Pontoise-Paris (1989),Master Plan Bruray – France(1990).

2)Academia: RobKrier as a theoretician, architect & urban planner has served as faculty& lecturer in world renowned universities all around the world. Somepositions held:(1973-75) Assistant in school of architecture, University ofStuttgart. (1975)Guest Professor at Ecole polytechniques fedetale de Lausanne,Switzerland. (1976-1998) for 25 years, professor of architecture at ViennaUniversity of technology. (1996) Guest Professor Yale University, UnitedStates.2010) Faculty of Architecture, Technical University Delft, Netherlands.                                          

3)Books:In 1975 with thelaunch of his book ‘Stadtraum’ which was published in English as ‘Urban Space’(1979), Krier garnered international notice. Since then he has authored &co-authored many books & papers. Krier’s various books in Dutch,English & French are listed below: (Source: Rob Krier, home page).

1)Stadtraum in Theorie undPraxis ,2)Urban Space, 3)Urban Projects 1968 - 1982 (Typology of space, house,facade and houses on a street corner.) ,4)Architecture and Urban Design, 5)OnArchitecture, Architektur-Bibel of Leon andRob Krier, 6)Amiens (he reconstruction of thehistoric center of Amiens), 7)Zeichnungen und Skulpturen, 8)Potsdam Kirchsteigfeld (The making of a town by RobKrier and Christoph Kohl.),9) City of Justice (A city in the city ofLuxembourg.) , 10) A city in the city of Luxembourg. (Journal about twinpassion for fine art and architecture.), 11) Figures - A Pictorial Journal 1972 – 1975 (Journal about period ofKrier's work as a lecturer and assistant to Prof. Johannes Uhl.), 12) Figures - A Pictorial Journal 2000 - 2002 (Paintings, sculptures,... ina journal with personal notes.), 13) Figures - APictorial and Architectural Journal 2010–2012 in St. Petersburg, 14) Figuren, 15) Figures - A Pictorial Journal 2003 – 2005 16), 16) Expo Panels 1973–2010 (Urbanism,Architecture & Sculptures), 17) Architectural Composition (is both a theoretical andvisual analysis which clearly illustrates the creative process.), 18) Architectural Journal 1960 - 1975 19)Town Spaces (Contemporary Interpretations in Traditional Urbanism.), 19) Bergen Op Zoom, 20) Composition Architectonica (Latest works lends itself tosome consideration on what the nucleus of his work is.), 21) Elements of Architecture (series of lessons in good architectural design), 22) Aalter 66, 23) Subjekte 65-68, 24) Ein romantischerRationalist - A Romantic Rationalist, 25) Le Nouvel Amiens, 26) Rob Krier Wien 1968 - 1992, 27) VienneBruxelles (Projets etréalisations a Vienne et Salzbourg), 28) Cité Judiciaire à Luxembourg 1995,29) Cité Judiciaire à Luxembourg 2007, 30) How to build in Bilbao, 31) Notizen am Rande – Skizzenbuch 002, 32) Figures (A Pictorial Journal,1976– 1985), 33)  Figures (APictorial Journal,2013), 34)Bas-Reliefs  2012, 35) Architectural Journal (1976 – 1982)


World View: Krier’s views on cities of the world are presented beautifully in hisdocumentary lecture, ‘How to Repair the city’. He strongly feels our 20thcentury new cities/ towns are repetitive, lack character, quality & are illequipped to stand the test of time. Their life spans just about 30 to 50 years.After which they are abandoned or demolished to incorporate the latest trends.Unlike the eternal quality of the classical European town/cities, which are steepedin tradition. Centuries of urban history clearly demonstrates that traditionalconcepts of urban spaces are also valid in modern town today. He holds thearchitect responsible for what is produced of the drawing board & executedas it bears his signature. Neither politics nor finances can exempt thearchitect of any ill planned environment, he says. His controversial ideasabout architecture are based on his own work experience in building cities likeBerlin, Stuttgart & Vienna. He has compelled the world to take a criticallook at the unquestioned modern movement, motivations & practice.
Post By :
Shalaka Lalwani
05 Oct 2015

'Request for strengthening position of Indian Architects & Urban Designers for practicing in India'

Letter Published in TOI, OCT-03-2015, Publishaletter.com

Dear Sir,

I Ar. Shalaka Lalwani am a practicing senior architect from Mumbai. Currently pursuing Masters in Urban Design.

As we know the sad truth of our degrees in Architecture and Urban Design is they are not valid abroad. If we are to bag any projects abroad we have to pass special compliance exam and pass a degree from that country. That's how foreign countries make sure that their local Architectural firms only get commissioned.

But in India the scenario is completely different. Instead of employing our Indian Architects more and more developers are hiring foreign architects from Singapore, Germany etc.  for showcase and prime projects. These architects do not have to write any compliance exams in India or pursue a Indian degree before practicing here. Thus sends a message that they are superior to us? Our council COA should take note of this severe injustice. It's a slap in face of us talented Indian Architects.

Developers should be charged penalty or extra fees by the council if they want to employ a foreign Architect, or use a foreign Architect firm as a brand. For any premium or other projects. Or a local firm ties up with a foreign firm to execute a project they should be taxed differently, with added penalty. (If you want to buy a luxury  foreign vehicle there is a tax premium paid to the government, same principal).This will ensure to some degree that local Architects get a fighting chance to execute and compete in a fair fashion. If our council does not support us in this plight of our Indian architects will soon become dire. Even for our countries smart city project proposals a lot of foreign firms are showing interest. We do have lot of senior, talented and capable Architects to compete for our local Indian projects.

COA should take serious note of this dire issue. Otherwise in future no Indian student will trust or complete a Bachelor's in Architecture or Master's in Architecture from India. If our course has no weightage abroad, their degrees should also not be considered on Indian soil. Or we just admit our courses are substandard. And close all our Architecture degrees offered in India, (i am very pained to say this). 

Extremely proud to bean Indian and an Architect, just asking for our community and our council to stand by us.

Thanking you for all good works done for our Architecture community till now and hoping to see this issue taken up an addressed more powerfully. Let me know if I can lend my help in any way possible. Loved article by, Surojit Gupta & Sidhartha, TNN | Oct 3, 2013, 05.40 AM IST. Architects keep foreign players out.

Best Regards,

Ar. Shalaka Lalwani

Post By :
Shalaka Lalwani
05 Oct 2015

'‘New Urbanism’, A boon or travesty '

Globally urban planning of cities & towns is under goinga dramatic make over. Where cities post World War II influenced by Corbuserian philosophy saw a modern and postmodern trend of geometric planned, grid patterned city scape. Some of our most current avate garde moderns, like Kevin Lynch, Christopher Alexander have pioneered a concept ‘New Urbanism’.

Today, conservation & improvement of our environment-air, water, land along with resources like fuel, energy is gathering a new momentum. To reduce every cities carbon foot print seems our biggest priority.And if we add employment related migration from other states as well as the ever exploding population problem to the urban mix. We truly have a acutehousing, water & waste management problem, along with infrastructureoverload & congestion problem to this chaotic mix.

The ‘New Urbanism’ concept a import from abroad tries to address these issues. (Kindly note that they already have planned cities,roads, services and a population just one fourth of us, prior to the introduction of this new concept.) This concept does make some valid points,for instance it does away with zoning of any kind. It says when residential and commercial zones are segregated they result in long commutes. For eg. A person from suburbs has to commute for two to three hours to reach his place of work in a commercial district, two ways every day. Affecting his quality of life aswell as resulting in consumption of lot of fuel, energy and time. Also commercial districts thrive during working hours 9am to say 7pm and then are transformed into dead zones. In effect wasting their resources of infrastructure, space and economy.

Its believers resort to a new concept ‘Tactical Urbanism’ which is again very interesting to study. It’s covert guerrilla warfare like movement where temporary low cost solutions with participation of local citizens are applied to ‘built environments’. It concentrates on street forcitizens or eyes on the street, like concepts. To make the city more pedestrianized and possibly more safe for women, senior citizens and children.  Believers in ‘New Urbanism’ state thatinstead of new infrastructure where a road/ bridge is used by say 50 cars perhour serving just 50 people, city should have pedestrian paths where 500 peoplewill use that road in a given hour. Another argument is just 8% people incities commute by cars and the rest 60% take public transports. So we don’t need infrastructure roads & bridges to carry these cars?

Proposal for widening roads, 100 mt. highways are called cruel monstrous notions by planners. They say they are not at human scale. I am surprised at this myopic vision of these supposed visionaries. Have you ever glanced at the pre independence, British Mumbai sepia toned picks? The thing that will jump at you will help you understand the phenomenon of the birth of our city. When just one train connected Mumbai port, the British built the sprawling Victoria Terminus station with more than eight railway tracks. We had 30 mt & 50 mt. wide streets in the old city connecting public landmarks. In the old picks these streets appear empty with a sparing horse drawn carriage here and there as well as some pedestrians. So was their foresight or futuristic planning a dud? We still use the water and waste management systems put in place by them to this day without any problem. So was their scale wrong?

I feel studying from our past what we can easily grasp is a city and its infrastructure is not built by myopically studying current scenarios but it should help facilitate a city function at least for the next 50 to 100 years without contingencies. A planned city is better at handling these future expansions and population explosion. Better than a unplanned haphazard development any day. Romanticizing temporary and cosmetic changes of‘Tactical Urbanism ‘cannot be treated as permanent solutions.           

As a shining example of ‘Tactical Urbanism’ often exampleof New Yorks ‘Time Square’ is sited. Where a busy though fair street was converted overnight into a pedestrian street by intervention of its then Mayor.The repurposing of congested,vehicle-laden streets into pedestrian-only public spaces was hugely successful,leading to dramatic increases in foot traffic, revenues for local stores and a decrease in traffic related injuries.

But what happened to the throbbing traffic that coursed through Times Square is my question? Did it disappear magically overnight? Did people start walking miles to go from one place to another? The answer is obviously ‘No’ to all the above questions. It just boils down to misrepresentation of data & statistics. Withholding or misrepresentation of data does not warrant to representation of the actual bonafide truth.

What I mean is simple. The authorities stepped in to deroute the traffic and a wider ring road for the traffic to disperse because of which the pedestrian movement became a success. So shutting down or deleting infrastructure is not the solution but in fact increasing it might just help to relieve congestion.

Another example sited is of ‘Singapore’ the new garden city which is beautifully pedestrianized. But what one doesn’t know is to achieve this extensive expansion of the Singapore was planned meticulously. They actually reclaimed a lot of land from the sea, a huge new ring road around the city was constructed to successfully reroute the traffic. So you see cause and effect should both be contemplated before arriving at drastic solutions& conclusions. Like claiming infrastructure development redundant.

Another notion ‘New Urbanism’ promotes is self-sufficientneighbourhoods. Where within a 15 minutes walking distance one can not onlyaccess by pedestrian means ones residence, place of work, institutions forchildren/youth, recreation- parks, gardens etc., medical aid-clinics/hospitals, markets  - local produce, restaurants/ cafes etc. In effect it encourages a whole eco system of thriving life related activities, culture, decentralised and brought together in one zone.

Don’t get me wrong I am all for such a neighbourhood, infact I live in one such neighbourhood. My office is walking distance from my home, my kids go to school 5 minutes away, I have access to market and shopping which is a stone throw away. I am ideally leading a ‘New Urbanism’ centric lifeif you look at my life at first blush.  I might be one of the lucky few but I am not navie enough to promote my isolated example as a sample study for ‘New Urbanism’.

You may ask why? The reason is as follows. We have around thirty five employees working with us for past 15 years in our Architectural firm. In all these years we had the pleasure of working with many wonderful,talented, qualified professionals. Our oldest employee is with us for past 12 years. But alas none of them are from our own neighbourhood.  Our office is located, in Dadar E, Mumbai.But all our staff are from suburbs and Thane, Mulund, Virar etc. Now my question is really will these people appreciate well connected infrastructure and public transport or will they appreciate a major road network getting converted into a pedestrian pathway? And in effect lengthening their commuting time?

So the fact of life remains before any idealistic half-baked ideas of ‘New Urbanism’ or worst ‘Tactical Urbanism’ are applied I will rather root for a well-planned water, sanitation system. Widened and increased infrastructure connectivity through our Mumbai city and yes updatingof our public transport system. Please stop wasting tax payer’s money by building ill placed and ugly over the head pedestrian bridges. The one at Dharavi junction is a total abomination and not one pedestrian is found using it. One has to go forty feet back to just climb it & who is going to climb all those steps to cross a twenty feet junction. Before any firangi concepts or ideas are thrown around loosely here in our country, my humble request to our thinkers, architects and city planners is to use some desi common sense first.Thank you.

Post By :
Shalaka Lalwani
07 Sep 2015

'Trends : Safety & Security Solutions for Today & Tomorrow'

Then & Now  
A decade ago safety & security was a bastion of very few & powerful people like Industrialist, Politicians & Film Stars. That to safety & security was simplistic a few choky dars, personal body guard & simple lock n key sufficed to keep them safe. For the rest of the general public a lone chokydar at the gate and a strong main door was your security feature.

But today with rapid economic growth, IT boom, explosion of Information technology& data there has been dramatic life style changes. Exploding population,increasing crime ratio, safety of women n children at risk and terroristthreats to public spaces like airports, railway stations etc.  it is sufficient to say norms for safety andsecurity have taken a drastic make over. Now not only the privileged but a common man both want and demand safetyand security in their life.

Ourmodern habitat today comprises of, Commercial spaces - like Malls, Markets,Cinemas, shops,  Corporate buildings-private & public offices, establishments , Industrial – industries,factories, Hospitality-  Hotels,Restaurants, Pubs, Cafes,  Residential –Colonies, Buildings, Bungalows, Flats, Residences, Institutions – Colleges,Schools, Libraries. All of them need  safety & security systems in place.

Safety& Security measures in different sectors - Commercial / Corporate /Industrial / Hospitality/ Residential can basically be summed up in threecategories.

1)First Tyre – Monitoring      2) SecondTyre – Preventive      3) Third Tyre –Defensive

1)     FirstTyre - Monitoring - Hardware & Soft Ware

Before hazardous situation, negligence, crime or theft happens in any given environment, employers in commercial, corporate, industrial, hospitality& healthcare have a fool proof system of monitoring who enters, inhabits & exists their environment. They advertise on signage’s that their premises are under cctv surveillance. As it is a healthy psychological deterrent to criminal minds and anti-social elements & plays on their fear of being identified &caught. In effect, creating a safer environment for others to inhabit.Monitoring through sensors, motion detectors, cctv cameras, heating and cooling systems can be termed safely as the first tyre of safety and security whichneeds to be planned by the design Architect or design consultant of thatbuilding. By identifying public zones, corridors, passages, unsupervised areas,high security areas and discreet surveillance tactics for private spaces arealso important.

2)     SecondTyre - Preventive - Hardware & Soft Ware

Preventive measures cover all theprocesses and mechanisms by which digital equipment, information, machinery and services are protected from unintended or unauthorized access, change ordestruction, and are of growing importance in today’s digital centric computer managed world.

It also includes physical security to prevent theft of equipment, and information security to protect the data on that equipment. It is sometimes referred to as "cyber security" or "IT security", though these terms here generally do not refer to physical security (locks and such).

Generally preventive hardware& software can be broadly said to comprise of advanced BMS systems. It is a computer-based control system installed in buildings that controls and monitors the building’s mechanical and electrical equipment such as ventilation, lighting, power systems, fire systems, and security systems. Locking systems, finger printing & access control systems, smoke detectors &alarms to prevent fire, hvac thermostats, electrical hubs, data storage or cyber security/ server security systems are also integral to this system. Building Management Systems are most commonly implemented in large projects with extensive mechanical, HVAC, electrical, and plumbing systems. Systems linked to a BMS typically represent 40% of a building's energy usage; if lighting is included, this number approaches 70%. BMS systems are a critical component to managing energy demand.

Cyber security assures protection of assets, which includes data, desktops, servers, buildings, and most importantly, humans. The goal of cyber security is to protect data both in transit and at rest. There are many counter measures that can be put in place,in order to ensure security of the data. Some of these measures include, but not limited to, access control, awareness training, audit and accountability,risk assessment, and security assessment and authorization.

3)     Third Tyre -Defensive - Hardware & Soft Ware

In cases where the hazard has already taken place or is in action, third tyre security systems come in play. Defensive systems cater to fire – sprinklersystems, last resort security features like loud alarms/ silent alarms. Whentheft or attack is in progress systems like total lock downs, automaticresponse systems for cars, safes, auto equipped panic rooms fall under thecategory of third tyre, defensive systems available today.


Our designs are evolved only after under standing our client’s requirement, comfort levels and their budgets. So we generally do not face any serious challenge in convincing our clients about the viability of our designs or automation in safety & security standards. It is always recommended that plans are freezed before starting detailing, boq and tendering process. Changes at a later stage result in delays at execution stage and unnecessary cost escalation. It is advisable for the client to have a clear requirement list,budget sanction and to overcome uncertainties at the preliminary stages of the design process. But still there can always be scope for important insight or corrections at a later stage to be implemented at the discretion of your Architect.

CurrentTrends & Products

Imagine ahome where the owner of the house can see who is at his/ her door. Then as thatperson enters he/she is able to trace their progress as they enter the grounds,foyer, the entrance lobby, the lift, their living room on the ground level& though their house. And control via internet what devices they can switch on or off from a far off location. How much time they spend in each room till they finally leave. They can even control the lighting, music, hvac/ heating,Wi-Fi connectivity, their gadgets/ appliances like, tv, fridge, microwave etc.in each room/ space as the guest progresses. This system is widely being used to create smart homes & smart cities. Access control cards are used to summon lifts, pay for groceries, bills, your maintenance, for using transport public utilities etc. Basically in smart cities & town ships they the secards become not only your identity cards but your utility cards as well. This vastly popular trend in most upcoming cities & townships is called IoT or‘Internet of Things’.

Fully automated spaces, a full wi-fi enabled zones via ‘internet of things’ IoT for, offices, homes, institutions etc. is here to stay this 2015. It is a scenario in which objects, machines,equipment, animals or people are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network. It is the interconnection of uniquely identifiable embedded computing devices within the existing Internet infrastructure. Typically, IoT is expected to offer advanced connectivity of devices, systems, and services that goes beyond machine-to-machine communications (M2M) and covers a variety of protocols,domains, and applications. The interconnection of these embedded devices(including smart objects), is expected to usher in automation in nearly allfields, while also enabling advanced applications like a Smart Grid.

Smarter cities of all sizes are capitalizing on new technologies and insights to transform their systems, operations and service delivery. Competition among cities to engage and attract new residents, businesses and visitors means constant attention to providing a high quality of life and vibrant economic climate. Forward-thinking leaders recognize that although tight budgets, scarce resources and legacy systems frequently challenge their goals, new and innovative technologies can help turn challenges into opportunities.

There aretransformative possibilities in using big data and analytics for deeperinsights. Cloud for collaboration among disparate agencies. Mobile to gatherdata and address problems directly at the source. Social technologies forbetter engagement with citizens. Being smarter can change the way their cities work and help deliver on their potential as never before. Systems by CISCO, IBM etc. are revolutionizing our way of living.

In large building projects are managed through, IBMS ‘Integrated Building Management Systems’ were sensors are used to verify the working of various equipment’s,for various services like hvac, fire fighting, sewage disposal, water supply/plumbing, etc. to monitor their smooth functioning. They are a integral part of the smart city concept. Introduction of building management systems in large buildings have improved the control of building services and has boosted energy savings.

The security industry is entering a period of change this 2015. The market is consolidating, a transformation that’s being driven not only by leading vendors such as Blue Coat, Palo Alto Networks, and Fire Eye, but also by venture capitalists, and global carriers.The security industry, by its nature, has always been entrepreneurial, and abundant with start-up companies. So not only safety & security systems from Godrej, Wipro, Siemens etc. are available on the shelf but we can expect many a innovative products from smaller & newer players.

Technologies and services focused on incident response – rather than just incident prevention – will be high on the agenda for security professionals in 2015. But as is true of all new technology this leap in the safety & security segment will come at a cost.It will make more viable sense to integrate these new technologies in new up coming projects as they will require a supporting infrastructure, mainframe&high power wi fi network. They will be showcased in high end luxury projects& buildings this 2015.

Post By :
Shalaka Lalwani
27 Aug 2015
Cobol Architect & Planners LLP